Some Examples Of International Agreements
First, in article 38, “general or special international conventions which lay down rules expressly recognized by the States in question”. (UN 1945) Some consider treaties to be the main source of international environmental law, precisely because they explicitly contain the agreement of the parties to the treaty. A treaty is defined in the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties as “an international agreement concluded in writing between States and subject to international law, whether contained in a single act or in two or more interconnected conventions and regardless of their particular name” (UN 1969, p. 3). A fundamental point of this definition is that a treaty is a written agreement between States. The question of whether a non-governmental organization could be a party to a treaty was controversial. In 1986, the United Nations General Assembly convened a conference in Vienna for the elaboration of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations. However, this Convention is not yet in force. As a general rule, multilateral treaties can be ratified by any State. Some treaties can also be ratified by supranational bodies such as the European Union and other international organisations. Second, some states do not have a state of succession, but cease to exist; in such cases, ratifications by the State shall not be taken into account. In some cases, these states are subsumed into an existing state, as East Germany was part of the Federal Republic of Germany and was part of Tanzania as Zanzibar (first the United Republic of Tanganjika and Zanzibar). In other cases, the state that no longer exists is divided into two or more states, none of which is designated as a formal successor state.
The latter situation is SFR Yugoslavia (now six independent states) and Czechoslovakia (now two independent states). In this situation, the new States usually explain which treaties that the no longer existing State still has strength for the new State. Such a declaration is considered by the new State to be a “ratification”. [c] In practice, the depositary of a treaty generally recognizes only ratifications of the treaty by a State recognized as a State under international law. A State may be formally recognized as such by becoming a member of the United Nations; There are currently 193 Member States of the United Nations. The only non-UN countries that undoubtedly meet the standards of the state are the Cook Islands and Niue, which have recognized their “full contracting capacity” of the UN Secretariat.   Vatican City is also widely recognized as being able to legally ratify treaties and has obtained from the United Nations General Assembly the status of non-member of an observer state.  [b] Following the adoption by the UN General Assembly of a resolution granting the State of Palestine non-member observer status, the UN General began to recognise its right to ratify treaties. ratifications by other less recognized States, such as the Republic of China (Taiwan); Kosovo; Northern Cyprus; Somaliland; the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara); South Ossetia; Abkhazia; Transnistria; and Nagorno-Karabakh – have generally not been recognized by the depositaries of the treaty as States that can ratify treaties, although there are some exceptions to this general rule. Bilateral agreements which concern a matter of mutual interest to the States concerned involve bilateral negotiations between them. These contracts are called “contract contracts”.
In contrast, multilateral agreements may include several entities and considerations in their negotiations. . . .